List of pre-EQ signals and of the methods to detect them
Without going into specific details of how different pre-EQ signals are generated, these signals are linked to the upward migration of positive hole charge carriers from regions of high stress through the Earth’s crust to the surface. The signals they produce at the surface of the Earth and above, all the way to the ionosphere, are useful and useable pre-EQ signals. They are listed here from large scale to the regional and local scale.
(1) Ionospheric anomalies are detectable typically 3-5 days before major earthquakes. The anomalies in the ionosphere consist of changes in the Total Electron Concentration (TEC) at the lower edge of the ionosphere, mostly increases over the long term average, best measured at night when the effects of the solar radiation on the ionosphere are less than during the day. The TEC anomalies are measurable by at least three techniques (i) using existing GPS technology to reconstruct tomographic images of the ionosphere over seismically active regions; (ii) using “over-the-horizon” FM radio wave transmission to detect changes in the morning or evening terminator times; and (iii) using long-distance AM radio waves reflected off the ionosphere over the seismically active region.
(2) E field turbulences in the ionosphere above earthquake preparation zones as recorded by Langmuir probes onboard the DEMETER mission (now terminated) and hopefully on board new small satellite missions soon to be approved for development and launch.
(3) Thermal Infrared (TIR) anomalies consist of increases in the radiative temperature of the ground and in the radiative temperature at the top of the clouds, also known as Long Wavelength Infrared anomalies. TIR anomalies mark the impending earthquake’s epicentral region and become detectable typically 3-5 days before major earthquakes. They can be detected by various satellite-borne infrared cameras or hyperspectral infrared imagers. Detection is currently possible using geostationary weather satellite images that are available every 15 or 30 min, albeit at a relatively low spatial resolution, 4 x 4 km2 at the equator and elongated at oblique viewing angles at higher North and South latitudes. The crucial information from the weather satellite images is obtained by determining the slope of night-time cooling curves.
(4) Anomalous CO release from the ground is retrievable globally on a daily basis from the MOPPIT sensor on board the NASA TERRA satellite.
(5) Anomalous ozone, O3, formation at the ground level is retrievable globally on a daily basis by the TOVS sounder on board the NOAA Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES).
(6) Increase in positive and negative air ion concentrations using networks of ground stations to measure air ionization, typically 100-200 km apart.
(7) Changes in the intensity of the x, y, z-components of the magnetic field, to be measured by ground stations typically 50-100 km apart.
(8) Emission of ultralow frequency (ULF) electromagnetic (EM) waves from the ground. Both unipolar pulses, typically lasting 100 m sec to 1-2 sec, and continuous ULF wave trains can be measured by ground stations, preferentially about 50 km apart.
(9) Regional changes in radio noise at different frequencies in the very low to low (VLF-LF) frequency ranges.
(10) Soil resistivity changes to measured by 4 point electrode systems at ground stations typically less than 100 km apart.
(11) Radon emanation from the ground by stations typically less than 100 km apart.
(12) Changes in water chemistry at commercial natural spring water bottling companies or from ground water wells, typically less than 100 km apart.
(13) Changes in the circadian rhythm of laboratory animals that can be recorded recorded 24/7 at universities, hospitals and zoos, using existing animal care facilities.
(14) Anonymized hospital records, with emphasis on increasing numbers of central nervous system disorders.
This participation initiative involves business enterprises in any country that will include development and support of advanced sensor products for military, civil, and commercial applications, such as situational awareness, earthquake precursor monitoring systems, and other dual use applications.
The business enterprise, entitled GeoCosmo Science and Research Center includes sensor technology that, in addition to other critical military sensor applications, will relate to earthquake precursor monitoring. This portion of the Advanced Sensor Initiative IP/O program includes
(i) Developing jointly with industrial participants advanced sensor systems such as hyperspectral imaging systems for satellite and other aerospace systems deployment,
(ii) IT efforts to develop algorithms to exploit presently available complementing capabilities,
(iii) Implement, operate and maintain ground station networks across seismically active regions. These activities will provide for new employment opportunities estimated to be at least a few hundreds new positions, involving relatively unskilled, moderately skilled, and highly skilled individuals, benefiting the involved country’s economy.